There was an error in this gadget

Monday, October 25, 2010

Yuvraj Singh

Yuvraj Singh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Yuvraj Singh
Yuvraj Singh.jpg
Personal information
Born12 December 1981 (1981-12-12) (age 28)
Chandigarh, India
NicknameYuvi
Height1.88 m (6 ft 2 in)
Batting styleLeft-handed
Bowling styleSlow left arm orthodox
RoleBatsman
RelationsYograj Singh (father)
International information
National sideIndia
Test debut (cap 247)16 October 2003 v New Zealand
Last Test2 December 2009 v Sri Lanka
ODI debut (cap 134)3 October 2000 v Kenya
Last ODI5 January 2010 v Sri Lanka
Domestic team information
YearsTeam
1996/97–presentPunjab
2003Yorkshire
2008–presentKings XI Punjab
Career statistics
CompetitionTestODIsFCList A
Matches3325089317
Runs scored1,5827,3455,3489,491
Batting average35.7837.0943.1237.96
100s/50s3/812/4316/2516/56
Top score169139209172
Balls bowled7513,9321,8074,929
Wickets88219114
Bowling average53.8740.8851.3636.45
5 wickets in innings0000
10 wickets in match000n0
Best bowling2/94/63/254/6
Catches/stumpings30/–72/–88/–93/–
Source: Cricinfo, 2 June 2010
Yuvraj Singh About this sound pronunciation (Punjabi: ਯੁਵਰਾਜ ਸਿੰਘ, born 12 December 1981 in a Punjabi Jat[1] family from Chandigarh, India) is a cricketer from India, and the son of former Indian fast bowler and Punjabi movie star Yograj Singh.[2] He has been a member of the Indian cricket team since 2000 (ODIs) and played his first Test match in 2003. He was the vice captain of the ODI team from late-2007 to late-2008. At the 2007 World Twenty20 he hit six sixes in an over against England's Stuart Broad—a feat only performed three times previously in any form of senior cricket, and never previously in an international match between two Test cricket nations.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Early career

Yuvraj first came to attention when he captained the U-19 Punjab cricket team in the final of the Cooch-Behar Trophy against Bihar U-19s, in which he scored 358.[3] He then gained selection for the U-19 World Cup in Sri Lanka in January 2000, where he was part of a team lead by Mohammed Kaif which won the tournament.[4] Yuvraj was subsequently selected in 2000 for the first intake of the National Cricket Academy in Bangalore.[5]

[edit] ODI career

Yuvraj made his One Day International debut against Kenya at Nairobi in 2000, at the ICC KnockOut Trophy. He showed his potential in his second ODI which was against the Australians where he scored a quickfire 84 off 82 balls against a quality pace attack consisting of bowlers like Glenn McGrath, Brett Lee and Jason Gillespie.[6] However, after a lean run of form, he was dropped for the one-dayers against Australia in India in early 2001,[7] but returned later in the year and helped India to victory in a match in Sri Lanka with an unbeaten 98.[8]
One of his most memorable innings was a partnership with Mohammad Kaif in the NatWest Series final against England in July 2002 which led India to victory.[9] He was selected and represented India at the 2003 Cricket World Cup. He scored his first century in his fourth season with the Indian team against Bangladesh in 2003. After that he also scored hundreds against Zimbabwe and Australia, including a 139 off 119 balls at the Sydney Cricket Ground.[10] In the Indian Oil Cup 2005, he made 110 (off 114 balls) (his third century) and an important partnership worth 165 runs with Mohammad Kaif, to become the man of the match against West Indies in the last match of the round robin league. After reaching his century, he attracted attention by angry gesticulations to the Indian dressing room, which was postulated to be due to his clashes with team management - Greg Chappell had been appointed as the new Indian coach and he had criticised Yuvraj.[11] He later praised Chappell's techniques.[12]
Yuvraj in his ODI batting kit.
Yuvraj had a good run of form late in 2005 and early in 2006, in the ODI format of the game. He was named as the man of the series in three consecutive series, against South Africa (joint with Graeme Smith),[13] and then against Pakistan and England, in which he scored three centuries and four half-centuries in fifteen matches, which propelled him into the top ten of the ICC ODI batting rankings. During the Pakistan tour, at times when captain and vice-captain Rahul Dravid and Virender Sehwag were absent, Yuvraj was the on-field captain, indicating that he may be seen as a potential captain.[11] In the next series in the West Indies, Yuvraj hit two fifties in four games, even though India lost the series 4-1. His performance was recognised with his shortlisting by the ICC as one of four nominees for the Internation One Day player of the year award.
Yuvraj missed the first game in the series after that, the tri-series against Australia and West Indies in Kuala Lumpur, due to illness and after failing to reach double figures in the following two games, was axed for Mohammed Kaif in the last group match. He showed signs of returning to form in the Champions Trophy, hitting a restrained unbeaten 27 to guide India to victory against England in the opening game after he was recalled in place of Kaif, but a knee injury forced him out of the final group match. He subsequently missed the tour of South Africa and was in doubt for the 2007 Cricket World Cup, but made a faster than expected recovery to play in the ODI series against the West Indies in India in January 2007. He struck a fluent 95* from 83 balls in India's final match against Sri Lanka before heading to the World Cup.
At the World Cup, Yuvraj only managed one fifty against a lowly Bermuda and along with rest of the squad, was criticized for India's first-round exit. Nevertheless, Yuvraj kept his place in the side for the tours of Bangladesh and Ireland in 2007.
In September 2007, he was named as the ODI vice captain of Mahendra Singh Dhoni after the resignation of Rahul Dravid. He then scored 121 in a losing cause during India's One-day International series defeat at the hands of Australia before enjoying a return to form as India beat Pakistan 3-2 on home soil in November 2007 and he was named Man of the series. In the five matches, he scored four half-centuries, although he was fined after showing dissent in the final match in Jaipur.[14]
In November 2008, he hit 138* from 78 balls against England at Rajkot, taking 64 balls to reach his century, which at the time was the second fastest by an Indian in ODIs, after Mohammad Azharuddin's century in 1988 against New Zealand came off 62 balls. After reaching 50 from 42 balls, he added a further 88 in the next 36 balls. He did so despite straining his back, which necessitated the use of Gautam Gambhir as a runner.[15] This was followed by 118 from 122 balls and a 4/28—all his wickets being specialist batsmen—in the next match in Indore, earning him two consecutive man of the match awards.[16]

[edit] Test career

An innings-by-innings breakdown of Yuvraj's Test match batting career, showing runs scored (red bars) and the average of the last ten innings (blue line).
Yuvraj made his Test debut against New Zealand in Mohali in late 2003 in front of his home crowd in Punjab due to the absence of regular captain Sourav Ganguly in the No. 6 position.[10] He was omitted upon Ganguly's return but got another opportunity in the Test team in the 2004 Tour to Pakistan, when Ganguly was again injured. He scored his first Test century in a losing effort against Pakistan in the second Test at Lahore. When Ganguly returned for the third Test, Akash Chopra was dropped and it appeared that the Indian selectors wanted to give him a regular place in the team. He was subsequently played as Virender Sehwag's opening partner, but after two poor matches in the Border-Gavaskar Trophy against Australia,[17] he was dropped in favour of Gautam Gambhir. He was recalled to the Test team, batting in the No. 6 position for the away series against Zimbabwe in August 2005 after Sachin Tendulkar was sidelined with tennis elbow. He then retained his position in the Test team after Ganguly was axed following a row with coach Greg Chappell. He scored a second Test century in the third and final Test in Pakistan in the series in January 2006, which India again lost. However, Yuvraj has struggled subsequently in 2006, failing to pass 50 in six Tests against England (two, both at home) and the West Indies (four, all away from home). His injury in late 2006 allowed the return of former captain Ganguly to the team, who subsequently top-scored in the series.
Yuvraj was included in India's Test squad to face Pakistan in November 2007, but was not included in the playing 11 for the first test. Yuvraj was picked in the 3rd Test due to an injured Sachin Tendulkar. India were 61/4 before he and Sourav Ganguly made a 300 run partnership with Yuvraj recording his highest Test score of 169.
He had a very poor Test series against Australia in Indian tour to that country in 2007–08. After his poor showing in the first two Tests he was dropped for the remainder of the series.
Yuvraj scored 85* put on an unbroken partnership of 163 with Sachin Tendulkar to defeat England in the First Test at Chennai on 15 December 2008. It was the fourth highest successful run chase in history and the highest in India.

[edit] Twenty20 career

On 19 September 2007 against England in the ICC World Twenty20 Super 8 match held at Kingsmead in Durban, he hit 6 sixes in an over up against Stuart Broad. This helped him to reach the fastest fifty ever in Twenty20 game, off just 12 balls and also the fastest in any form of international cricket.[18][19][20] This was the fourth time that six sixes had been hit in one over in senior cricket, the first time in Twenty20 cricket, and the first time in any form of international cricket against a bowler from a test playing nation. (Garfield Sobers and Ravi Shastri did it in first class matches, and Herschelle Gibbs did it in a 2007 Cricket World Cup match against Dutch bowler Daan van Bunge.) He has also hit the longest six of the tournament:119 meters off of Australian bowler Brett Lee and currently is the world's leading 20-20 batsman in terms of strike rate.[21] Yuvraj was awarded a Porsche 911 car for his 6 sixes achievement by the Vice President of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), Lalit Modi. Yuvraj also received Rs.10,000,000 (US$252,716) in cash from the BCCI for his splendid performance in the tournament.[22]
Yuvraj also scored 70 runs off 30 balls and went on to claim the Man of the Match against Australia in the World Twenty20 semifinals at Durban.[23]
He was the icon player and captain for Indian Premier League team Kings XI Punjab in the first two seasons; in 2010, the third season, icon player status was abolished and the captaincy given to Kumar Sangakkara. They came second in the round robin phase of the tournament, but lost their semi-final to the Chennai Super Kings. On 1 May 2009, Yuvraj picked up his first hat-trick in T20 cricket against Royal Challengers Bangalore at Kingsmead in Durban, the same ground where he hit his six sixes. He dismissed Robin Uthappa, Mark Boucher and Jacques Kallis. On 17 May 2009, Yuvraj picked up his second Twenty20 hat-trick against Deccan Chargers at the Wanderers Stadium in Johannesburg. Yuvraj dismissed Herschelle Gibbs, Andrew Symonds and Venugopal Rao.

[edit] Style

Yuvraj during fielding practice.
Yuvraj is primarily a left-handed batsman but can bowl part-time left-arm orthodox spin. He is regarded as being better at batting against fast bowling than spin bowling, and cites the Indian Oil Cup 2005 as a turning point in his career.[24] He is one of the better fielders in the Indian team, fielding primarily at point, with a good aim at the stumps. A Cricinfo report published in late 2005 showed that since 1999, he was the fourth most prolific fielder in effecting ODI run outs, and of those on the list of prolific fielders, he had the second highest rate of effecting a run out.[25] He was previously often characterized as having attitude problems,[26] but later often assumed leadership positions during Rahul Dravid's tenure as captain. Lately Yuvraj has put on a significant amount of weight, which has had an adverse effect on his fielding capability.

[edit] Test Centuries

Yuvraj Singh's Test Centuries
RunsMatchAgainstCity/CountryVenueYear
[1]1123PakistanLahore, PakistanGaddafi Stadium2004
[2]12213PakistanKarachi, PakistanNational Stadium2006
[3]16920PakistanBangalore, IndiaM.Chinnaswamy Stadium2007

[edit] County cricket

After the 2003 Cricket World Cup, Yuvraj was signed by Yorkshire, becoming only the second Indian after Tendulkar to represent the county.[3] However, he had a disappointing run, scoring less than 200 runs in either form of the game,[4] but described it as an important learning experience.

[edit] Commercial interests

Yuvraj was signed by Microsoft to be a brand ambassador for the Xbox 360 video game console when it was launched in India in 2006. He appeared in advertisements for the console alongside Bollywood actor Akshay Kumar. Codemasters' cricket video game Brian Lara International Cricket 2007, was released with his endorsement in India, titled "Yuvraj Singh International Cricket 2007"[5] The Bollywood animated film, Jumbo features cricketer Yuvraj Singh's voice therefore starting his career in Bollywood. The upcoming animated full length feature film Captain India features Yuvraj Singh as the main protagonist.[27][28][29][30]

[edit] References

  1. ^ Chaitanya, Tanya (2005-02-23). "‘Mandira oye! Yuvraj Singh thinks being a cricket commentator is serious business". The Times of India (The Times of India). http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kanpur-times/Mandira-oye/articleshow/1030074.cms. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  2. ^ "Yograj Singh". IMDB. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1127958/bio. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  3. ^ http://www.icc-cricket.com/india/content/story/79062.html
  4. ^ Vasu, Anand (2000-01-28). "Indian youth bring World Cup to India". Cricinfo. http://content-usa.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/88206.html. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  5. ^ Ramchand, Partab (2000-04-15). "First list of NCA trainees". Cricinfo. http://feedsuk.cricinfo.com/link_to_database/ARCHIVE/CRICKET_NEWS/2000/APR/029816_CI_15APR2000.html. Retrieved 2007-02-08. 
  6. ^ "Aussies sunk by inspired India". BBC. 2000-10-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/cricket/961034.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  7. ^ "Harbhajan handed one day recall". BBC. 2001-03-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/in_depth/2001/india_v_australia/1228420.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
  8. ^ Austin, Charlie (2001-08-01). "Yuvraj stars for India with match winning knock". Cricinfo. http://content-aus.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/95752.html. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  9. ^ "Hero Kaif takes India home". BBC News. 2002-07-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/cricket/england/2126684.stm. 
  10. ^ a b Cricinfo - Gearing up without Ganguly
  11. ^ a b Cricinfo - Born again
  12. ^ Cricinfo - Yuvraj backs Chappell's methods
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ Yuvraj Singh Fined For Dissent After Jaipur Match, Cricket World, Retrieved on 19 November 2007
  15. ^ [2]
  16. ^ Yuvraj reigns over England again
  17. ^ Cricinfo - Singh hits a low note
  18. ^ Twenty20 matches-Fastest fifties
  19. ^ One-Day Internationals-Fastest fifties
  20. ^ Test matches-Fastest fifties
  21. ^ "Twenty20 Internationals - Highest career strike rate". http://stats.cricinfo.com/records/content/records/282920.html. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  22. ^ World Champions arrives, Mumbai comes to standstill
  23. ^ http://sify.com/news/fullstory.php?id=14531778
  24. ^ Vasu, Anand. "Born again". Cricinfo. http://content-aus.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/249085.html. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  25. ^ Basevi, Trevor (2005-11-08). "Statistics - Run outs in ODIs". http://content-usa.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/224487.html. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  26. ^ "Yuvraj speaks highly of Sourav's support". Cricinfo. 2001-03-28. http://content-aus.cricinfo.com/ci/content/story/105607.html. Retrieved 2007-02-05. 
  27. ^ "A wonder stick for Yuvi". Livemint.com - The Wall Street Journal. 7 April 2010. http://www.livemint.com/2010/04/07211054/A-wonder-stick-for-Yuvi.html?h=C. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  28. ^ "Yuvraj Singh steps into glam world". One India. 7 April 2010. http://entertainment.oneindia.in/bollywood/news/2010/yuvraj-captain-india-070410.html. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  29. ^ "Yuvraj Singh to star in an animated movie!". Indiainfo.com. 8 April 2010. http://movies.indiainfo.com/article/yuvraj-singh-to-star-in-an-animated-movie-852930/1042306.html. Retrieved 24 April 2010. 
  30. ^ "Yuvraj Singh stars in animation flick, Captain India". Sify Movies. 9 April 2010. http://sify.com/movies/fullstory.php?id=14938051. Retrieved 24 April 2010.

Some Record Holders

  1.         Angel Falls - The World's highest waterfall. You can only visit this place by air.

 
2.        
The Largest cut diamond - Cullinan                          3. The Largest uncut diamond - Golden Jubilee Diamond
                                                                       
4.  The Largest Lake in the world - Caspian Sea - as viewed using Google Earth.

      5. The Deepest lake in the world - Lake Baikal in Russia, Also, the Largest freshwater lake by volume of water.
          Deepest point 1327m

6. The Largest Sheet of water - Victoria Falls, Africa
 
 7. The largest cave system in the world - Mammoth Caves


8. Oldest Tree (Known) - Bristle cone tree - estimated 10,000 years.

 
ForwardSourceID:NT000

 

Some Important Laws Which Scientists don't care to State

Some Important Laws Which Scientists don't care to State
************************************************************

 
* LAW OF QUEUE: If you change queues, the one you have
left will start to move faster than the one you are in now.

 
 
LAW OF TELEPHONE : When you dial a wrong number, you

never get an engaged one.

 

LAW OF MECHANICAL REPAIR: After your hands become

coated with grease, your nose will begin to itch.

 

LAW OF THE WORKSHOP: Any tool, when dropped, will roll
to the least accessible corner.

 

LAW OF THE ALIBI: If you tell the boss you were late
 
for work because you had a flat tire, the next morning

you will have a flat tire.

 

BATHTHEOREM
: When the body is immersed in water, the  
telephone rings.

 

LAW OF ENCOUNTERS
: The probability of meeting someone
you know increases when you are with someone you don't
 
want to be seen with.

 

LAW OF THE RESULT: When you try to prove to someone

that a machine won't work, it will!

 

LAW OF BIOMECHANICS: The severity of the itch is

inversely proportional to the reach.

 

THEATRE RULE: People with the seats at the furthest

from the aisle arrive last.

 

LAW OF COFFEE: As soon as you sit down for a cup of

hot coffee, your boss will ask you to do something  

which will last until the coffee is cold.
 
 

Thursday, October 21, 2010

indian economie


Role of Foreign Business Finance in Balance of Payments

Post By admin ~ 18th October 2010

Manmohan Singh, current prime minister of India.
Image via Wikipedia
Countries like India could face a balance of payments issue with incessant foreign direct investments. In business finance, an unfavorable balance of payments situation is when a country’s external debt exceeds its income. Profitability is not an option for India, since it has to repay its debt, and also post an operating profit. Going on break-even mode for long, holds no value for any overseas business finance investments.
Balance of payments problems might surface directly or indirectly. When there is a large pool of foreign equity presence in Indian companies, then the balance of payment problem is direct. Also, if revenues after exports are not great, then the country has a negative business finance condition. Sometimes, emerging countries like India will buy international export licenses. Costing a lot, these licenses have to be renewed periodically and are subject to lots of terms and conditions. In situations where the basic raw materials are not available within the country, import has to take place. When all this gets out of hand, the business finance potential tilts in the other direction. A direct balance of payments deficit is indicated in these circumstances. Indirect balance of payments happen, when exports from emerging economies are not wanted, because a substitute was found for it in the importing country.
Nowadays, multinational companies invest in other countries by setting up subsidiaries, or branches. By doing this they are ensuring that they deal with the same products and services. What they also achieve is a reduction in operating business finance expenses. Looking at an export perspective, this does not offer a great business finance impetus to the host country. If the FDI is driven by reduction of operating costs, then more exports do not necessarily mean more money for the host country. If the FDI is driven by the reduction of production costs, then more exports will automatically take place from the host country.
Empirical evidences do not however substantiate the direct involvement of FDI in creating unfavorable business finance conditions in a country. However, over a long-term, self-sufficiency to a certain degree is always advised.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Revival Business Finance: The Indian Stimulus Package

Post By admin ~ 16th October 2010

LONDON, ENGLAND - JANUARY 02:  Shoppers peruse...
Image by Getty Images via@daylife
In 2008, the Indian government resuscitated the Indian economy back to life with a stimulus package to strengthen India’s business finance position. Deepening global financial meltdown influenced this act. Close to four billion US dollars was part of the stimulus package. By cutting down on miscellaneous expenses, and also on the repo rate, the government of India raised the internal demand for business finance.
Investors and businessmen were drawn into a sense of hope. Incentives were piggybacked on the stimulus package. To increase exports, over fifty million US dollars was chalked out as part of incentives. Cottage industries, where manual labor was more concentrated, became the beneficiaries of the stimulus package. Efforts such as these, gave the cottage industries operating business finance, and a fresh lease of life. Aimed to be an act of resuscitation, the stimulus package led to not only a revival, but also a revolution.
A stimulus package is a kind of revival business finance. Business finance when available more freely in the market has lesser demand-rigidity. So lending of it can be more liberal. When lending is liberal with regards to interest rates, there will be more takers. Money taken will be used to produce profits or income. Profits or income, become savings. Savings are kept in banks, or invested. Ultimately serendipity happens, leading to a favorable business finance condition.
The Indian government as part of its stimulus initiative, provided tax rebates on business finance for small and medium scale industries. Different products were identified to have a revision of their value added taxes. By doing this, the government increased the consumption of these products. By reducing Central Value Added Tax on cars, cement, and textile, the government ensured that people stopped to stop buying these commodities. Companies in housing, exports, power, automobiles, and infrastructure received a wave of fresh business finance through the stimulus package.
In 2008, the Indian economy was growing at around 6-7 percent. With the inclusion of the stimulus package, things changed. Fresh business finance created a sea of activity in the Indian economy. A new road was opened for India Inc.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Teaser Home Loans

Post By admin ~ 16th October 2010

SBI hq in Mumbai
Image via Wikipedia
When there is too much liquidity in the market, some of it has to be taken off. Teaser Home loans do just that. A Teaser Home Loan is a kind of business finance that is given by the lending market to the borrowing market, when there is an excessive liquidity situation. To minimize the inactivity of the lending market, business finance is doled out as Teaser Home Loans. Economies use this as an accelerator to gain enough activity.
Attractive interest rates and easy payment options characterize Teaser Home Loans. Teaser Home Loans will even have waivers of interest rates. Interest rates might get back to original rates after the-honeymoon’ period. One might tend to think if this business finance model is inspired by the clothing retail market.
Teaser Home Loans will have interest rates a couple of notches below standard rates. Fixed rates might be for a specific period of time, post-which the borrower will have the option to switch to floating rates. In India, affordable housing is the next wave of real estate. Teaser Home Loans provide the perfect business finance option for banks to tap into the customer base of this market. Buyers of economical homes will always flock to the teaser loan avenue.
Banks will not always keep Teaser Home Loan schemes. From a business finance perspective, the viability of long-term Teaser Home Loans is not convincing. So banks usually offer Teaser Home Loans for a finite period of time. For example, the State Bank of India brought out a home loan scheme. 8 percent interest was charged in the first year, and 9 percent from then onwards. From the 4th year, loans lesser than or equal to fifty lakh rupees, was charged at 9.25 percent interest. This is an example of a teaser home loan. Existing customers felt that the Teaser Home Loan was only to attract new customers. Expressing their concerns to the Banking Codes and Standards Board of India (BCSBI), customers felt that the business finance model of teaser loan providers was not inclusive.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Derivatives

Post By admin ~ 14th October 2010

The floor of the Chicago Board of Trade, a maj...
Image via Wikipedia
In business finance, a derivative is a derived value of an asset. Shares, or currencies can be assets. Based on the derived value, a financial agreement is made between two parties. It is basically a forecasted price of an asset. Underlying is what the forecasted asset is called. In business finance, all derivatives are based on the forecasted value of the underlying.
Exchange-traded and Over-the-counter (OTC) are the two markets in which derivatives are traded. Exchange-traded markets are supported by the stock exchanges. Providing guarantee, stock exchanges minimize transactional risks in exchange-traded markets. Exchange-traded markets are controlled by centralized regulatory mechanism. Also, there are umpteen business finance traders in exchange-traded markets. Stock exchanges also want companies that offer exchange-traded derivatives to become their member through a registration process. In over-the-counter markets, all the above mentioned things are missing. OTC markets are private in nature. On OTC markets, the length of the contract can be mutually decided on.
Swaps, futures, and options are the common types of derivatives. Other types of derivates do exist, since forecasted business finance can be based on any kind of asset or security. Examples of other types of derivatives are foreign exchange derivatives, and equity derivatives. In business finance, futures is a contract between two parties to trade an asset on a future date. Price for the asset will be as of today. The same price will be applicable on the future date of trade. Futures are traded on the futures exchange. The futures exchange is a place where futures contracts are traded.
A swap, like the name suggests, is swapping benefits of a party’s financial instrument for the others’. It is not a replacement business finance mechanism, but rather a win-win business finance mechanism. Here too, the forecasted value of the underlying is taken into account.
Option is another derivative that establishes a non-obligatory contract to buy or sell an asset within a timeframe, and at an agreed price. Options have expiration dates. Within the expiration date trade has to happen. After this date, the option is closed for no other business finance activity.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Indian Bond Market

Post By admin ~ 10th October 2010

The island of Manhattan, whence the term is de...
Image via Wikipedia
The bond market is called the debt market. In this market, business finance traders trade bonds. In real sense, a bond is a kind of security for a debt taken. Issuers (borrowers) of the bond will be liable to repay the holders of it. Interest needs to be paid until the bond reaches maturity. After this, the principal of the bond needs to be paid. So in other words, a bond can be classified as a kind of loan.
More than equity markets, the bond market is sought by the business finance community all over the world. But in India this has not been the case. However, things have changed in India over the last decade or so. After the financial reforms in 1992, the bond market started to make progress. Banks were asked to drop off a part of their mediation in the financial markets. Ecosystem of the market was set as the control system; which meant that the market was not dictated by the government and national banks. In the early 1990′s old government securities were put under the hammer. Ending the era of rehearsed interest rates, the financial reform ushered in a fresh wave of business finance management. On account of this, demand and supply of business finance was the controlling factor in the bond market.
There are different types of bond markets in India. They are namely, corporate bond market, funding bond market, municipal bond market, and government bond market. Systems like delivery versus payment in the Indian bond market, ensures smooth settlement of outstanding business finance issues. The reserve bank of India has created a controlling system called the trade for trade system. Under this system no settlement other than bonds or funds are used to close bond transaction. Foreign investors with business finance of up to thirty percent as fixed income can now invest in the bond market in India.
There have been a slew of other measures taken by the government of India, to enhance the workings of the Indian bond market. The bond market in India has got enormous business finance potential.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Business Finance Analytics

Post By admin ~ 8th October 2010

WASHINGTON - SEPTEMBER 10:  Chartered Financia...
Image by Getty Images via@daylife
Sometimes business finance strategies fall on inert soil. By non-judicious use of business finance, things might go asunder. An approach that incorporates setting objectives to key stakeholders like employees, can work in large businesses. Stakeholders can be made to understand the end results of their performances. So it is important to make them understand the directives. If given the right business finance decision making system, financial performance can be bettered. This is what business finance analytics aims to achieve.
Financial analytics is high on popularity. Business finance information is the most important driver for sound decision making. With so many markets around, it is quite difficult to manage compliance tasks as well. Financial institutions were the first users of finance analytic techniques. Analyzing cash flows, research on equity participation, conduction feasibility studies on mergers and acquisitions are some of the areas that financial analytics delves into.
Financial analytics is a process by which internal and external business finance information is leveraged to produce business intelligence reports. Information will have plenty of pointers to it, most being action plans. India is being eyed as a potential vendor for cost-effective and super-efficient financial analytics. Companies are in the process of identifying existing outsourcing vendors and analyzing their capabilities for this activity.
Financial analytics is the domain of educated business finance professional like chartered accountants, and statistics graduates. Other financially-educated personnel are used as well. A popular business finance study program is the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) course being offered by many educational institutions in India.
Globally, the financial analytics market is huge. Touching more than 5 billion US dollars in market potential, it’s the next wave of financial outsourcing opportunity for India to capitalize on. Now all that India has to do is to try to get business finance professional to bite the bait of a highly rewarding career. Often, new avenues are viewed with suspicion in India. Stemming from lack of governmental initiative towards marketing new outsourcing avenues, educated graduates turn down non-established careers. But now the situation has changed. India has risen to business finance analytics in a big way.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Business Finance Investments in IT: Role of IT Service Management

Post By admin ~ 6th October 2010

ITIL Nadel / sticker "foundation"
Image by pittigliani2005 via Flickr
Total cost of ownership is a concept that shows an asset’s real worth. People make the mistake of basing an assets business finance worth on its contract values. Cost potential arises from a variety of possibilities that the asset might be subject to. Even difficult is to calculate the return of business finance investment. Investment values and asset values can be derived from the return-of-investment (ROI) indicator. But ROI sometimes ignores the costs associated with invested business finance.
IT infrastructure costs are constant. Technology upheavals are not overnight affairs. They take time, resources, and sound business finance investment discretion. Many a times, in the mundane chore of carrying out IT tasks, experimentation is kept on the backburner. Controllable as it might seem, IT costs on normal infrastructure maintenance and repair is never assessed for a cost recovery. Presumably, IT business finance theorists feel that IT costs can be reined when the need arises.
So how can a mechanism be established that controls and balances out IT costs? Measures for this are still out in the desert. Considering that IT costs are never in the scheme of things of business finance returns on investment.
In organizations, managements fail to understand the direct and indirect benefits of business finance investments in some areas. IT is one of those. IT is most often than not seen as a support activity. Business finance revenue is not directly attributed to its presence or absence. Now perspectives are changing with the inclusion of IT Service Management (ITSM) in the scheme of things. IT service management deals with the management of IT infrastructure. More on the customer-centricity front, ITSM seeks to map IT directly to business goals.
ITSM allows companies to make more purpose-driven business finance investments. Competitive advantage being built notwithstanding, companies now can crisscross roads of business with the roads of IT. By doing this, companies will arrive at business finance cost models that leverage the linking up of IT with drivers of business goals.
Therefore, ITSM seems to be an excellent choice for companies to standardize their IT business finance decision making.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Microfinance in India

Post By admin ~ 6th October 2010

NEW YORK - SEPTEMBER 26:  Microfinance pioneer...
Image by Getty Images via@daylife
Microfinance is offering business finance to low-income groups. It is a series of small-portioned finance capsules. In India, business finance in micro-capsules makes sense, given the vast amounts of under-financed sectors. Many classes of the society have absolutely no access to business finance avenues. Microfinance was born, to defeat this situation.
In India, microfinance has enabled women to be self-employed. Even though business finance was delivered, the span was limited. Due to lack of knowledge, and lack of business finance providers in this category, microfinance didn’t pick pace. Microfinance still remains a flapping bird, unable to fly.
Although microfinance is a terminology used now to associate it with a business finance lending strategy, microfinance has always existed before. Post-independence, the Indian government directed banks to give business finance to priority sectors like agriculture. Loans on concessional rates were given to farmers and peasants during that time. Statistically, South Asian countries account for most of the micro-business finance consumption. World Bank estimates have it that close to ninety percent of India’s population has no access to any kind of business finance.
Lack of proper organization of these loans, still vested the microfinance power to the corrupt moneylender. Charging unruly interest rates, the money lender capitalized on the helplessness of the cattle class people of India. But now things are changing. People are awakening to the realities of microfinance.
Many microfinance institutions have been setup in India. Life and survival promotion organizations like BASIX were the first ones. Other microfinance institutions (MFIs) followed suit. Most MFIs were NGOs. They all came with an orientation to uplift the poor. But problems started happening when the oil well of microfinance was discovered, and perspectives started changing.
Some basic methodologies adopted by MFIs to solve business finance issues of clients are to use a poverty survey to identify potential areas to target. Then, debts of all people are clubbed together by getting them to form groups. A wholesome loan is given against the debt without collateral, and each debt-member has to pay his/her debt. By doing this the repayment of the debt is eased out.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Understanding Liquidity Risk

Post By admin ~ 18th September 2010

Figure 14: Monthly liquidity of an organic veg...
Image via Wikipedia
In business finance, any security/asset/investment that has a good salability value has less liquidity risk. Anything that can be easily realized as money in less time is a highly liquid asset. Assets that are not highly liquefiable have high liquidity risk. Though simple in definition, understanding liquidity risk is like a universe. It is vast, and sometimes unsubstantiated.
When the odds looks stacked against a business, it might be forced to go for asset liquefaction. Inability to sell assets sets-in when the market is down. This situation is that of stubborn market liquidity. In the same vein, when a business approaches banks to bail it out and the banks go asunder, then it experiences stubborn financial liquidity. When talking in terms of banks; any bank that can raise business finance from its own kitty is said to have a low liquidity risk.
To tackle liquidity risk, there are some methods adopted by business finance vendors like banks, investment companies, and venture funds. In risk management, liquidity risk has a low occurrence rate. Reputational liquidity risk is another version of liquidity risk that limits business finance for companies based on factors like reputation. Stress tests need to be conducted to expose a business’s capacity to generate business finance when it is needed the most. Based on the results, plans have to be drawn up to factor-in any predicted situations.
Analyzing and quantifying the long-term run-up of an asset is important. Asset-life assessments reveal the longevity and flexibility of an investment-class that provides ample support to last a business. Business finance forecasts or cash flow projections are another way to assess liquidity risks. Prediction mechanisms have to be established that predict the future behavior of cash flows. In this way, the availability or non-availability of cash can be determined during a time frame.
Understanding liquidity risk in business finance is important. Investor and customer confidence being the prerogative in these times, businesses have to predict, and preempt business finance situations. Though methodologies are not well developed to counter liquidity risk, all it requires initially is some basic business common sense.
Enhanced by Zemanta
  • Share/Bookmark

Infrastructure Finance in India

Post By admin ~ 17th September 2010

Reserve Bank of India, Kolkata
Image by seaview99 via Flickr
India’s robust growth during the recent decades can be attributed to infrastructure finance. Leading the developing countries list, India is growing at a rate of over 8 percent GDP. Business finance institutions have been instrumental in providing the financial support in the infrastructure space. Infrastructure needs to be complemented with business finance resources. But India has been well supported with business finance for infrastructure development activities.
Approving the inclusion of business finance in the infrastructure space, the government is laying a lot of impetus on the importance of the role of infrastructure finance companies. That’s specifically the reason why the eleventh five year plan of the Indian government foresees business finance investments in infrastructure to the tune of twenty crores plus. Directing the planning commission to encourage private business finance investment in infrastructure, the prime minister’s office has laid its objective clearly.
With the auguring of non-banking finance companies, the situation looks even better. Business finance in infrastructure will be given support by the Reserve Bank of India, which has developed specialized policy compartment for it. Infrastructure needs these special entities to fund exorbitant amounts that are difficult to raise in the market.
Infrastructure Financing Companies that have good credit ratings and over 300 crores in funds are given the go-ahead. Now that the Reserve Bank of India has made provisions to infrastructure finance companies, business finance in infrastructure will get more thrust.
Borrowers for business finance can expect to get more finance, since infrastructure companies can legally mobilize more than a quarter of its funds. This might not be over-leveraging, but does add more flexibility to the scheme of things in business finance. Single-group multiple borrowings can take more than forty percent over existing funds from infrastructure companies.
Infrastructure finance thrives on funds that have been invested for longer periods of time. Though individual investments are tough to come by, institutions like the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank are providing able assistance. Teaming up with these institutions, the government is ensuring long term investments in infrastructure.