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Sunday, February 6, 2011

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HUMAN
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
Civil Service Branch
December 1995HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
FOREWORD
MANAGING PEOPLE BETTER
AIMS and PRINCIPLES
VALUES
WHERE RESPONSIBILITIES LIE
Civil Service Branch
Policy Branches and Departments
Managers and Individual Civil Servants
DEPARTMENTAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANS
Manpower Planning
Succession Planning
Turnover
Recruitment
Deciding on Terms of Appointment
Selection of Candidates
Probation
Performance Management
Motivation
Performance Appraisal
Promotion
Guidance and Supervision
Addressing Poor Performance
Training and Development
Training
· Induction
· Management Development
· Vocational
· Language and Communication
· Computer
Development
· Posting
· Acting Appointment
· Secondment
Staff Relations
Securing Staf Commitment
· Consultation
· Communication
· Recognition
Resolving Disputes
Addressing Grievances
WelfareManagement Information Systems
THEWAY AHEADFOREWORD
One of the measures of success of our Civil Service is our responsiveness to the
changing needs and circumstances of Hong Kong. We are learning how to work with a
fully elected legislature and how to deliver new and improved services demanded by a
more affluent and sophisticated community. We have become more open and
accountable, and have committed ourselves to specific standards of performance against
which the public can gauge what they can and should expect from us. Such
responsiveness and adaptability call for an enormous amount of resilience, dedication
and skill from all of us. We must ensure that our human resource management (HRM)
practices develop even further the commitment and performance of civil servants.
Each one of us have a role to play in meeting the challenge of improving our HRM
practices and maintaining a dynamic and progressive approach to managing people.
This Guide to Human Resource Management not only encapsulates the vision and
guiding principles of how we intend to manage people in the future, but also provides a
practical tool to assist us all in realizing that vision.
The Hong Kong Civil Service is one of the best in the world, and people are Hong
Kong's most precious assets. I hope colleagues will make the most of this Guide to
upgrade the value of our "assets" and uphold the high reputation of our Civil Service.
Michael C. C. SZE
Secretary for the Civil ServiceMANAGING PEOPLE BETTER
Management Framework
BEING ACCOUNTABLE
· Answering to the Legislative Council
· Keeping the Community Informed
· Providing Access to Information
LIVINGWITHIN OUR MEANS
· Applying Fiscal Guidelines
· Assessing Community Needs
· Planning
· Resource Allocation
· Reviewing Performance
MANAGING FOR PERFORMANCE
· Refining Performance Measures
· Managing by Programme
· Improving Efficiency
· Managing Public Finances
· Managing Human Resources
· Managing Support Services
· Developing Departmental Plans
· Reviewing Progress
DEVELOPING OUR CULTURE OF
SERVICE
· Making Performance Pledges
· Using Feedback to Improve Services
· Securing Staff Commitment
Human Resource Management is a long-established task within the Government's
Management Framework. Through this task the Governmentmeets its obligation to be a
good employer; seeks to secure staff commitment; and develops and manages staff to
give of their best to help the Government serve the community. The need to respond to
changing community expectations means that the task of managing our staff better is
more important than ever - it is the staff who deliver the service, and it is through a new
emphasis on staff management that a customer service and performance oriented culture
will gradually evolve.
The Civil Service Branch carried out a review in 1993 to determine what changes were
needed in implementing Human Resource Management so that it could best
complement and support the new focus on devolving authority, on customers and on
raising service standards.
The outcome of the review has established the direction for Human Resource
Management. First the Civil Service Branch is now concentrating more on its strategic
role, determining policy, setting guidelines and rules, and advising branches and
departments on implementation. Within this, the Branch is delegating as much authority
as possible to departments, and simplifying rules and procedures. Second, the emphasis
is now more on the management of people rather than the administration of rules. Third,
branches and departments are expected to review and develop their own Human
Resource Management plans to help them meet their operational requirements.
While the Civil Service Branch encourages the implementation of Human Resource
Management initiatives, it appreciates that change cannot happen overnight, and thatmany effective staff management practices are already occurring. It is for departments
to build upon these and show continuous improvement over time.
This booklet explains how Human Resource Management works in the Hong Kong
Civil Service. It describes the core principles and values of the Government; where
responsibilities lie; and the key management tasks that must be addressed.AIMS AND PRINCIPLES
Aims
The Government exists to serve the community : it seeks to provide the services the
community needs and the leadership Hong Kong needs to go on succeeding.
Serving the Community is the Government's single most important aim, to which all
civil servants should be committed.
It requires the Government to provide the services the community needs, and to
provide the leadership Hong Kong needs to go on succeeding. To do so, we act in
the public interest to:
· foster stability and prosperity,
· improve the quality of life for the whole community,
· care for those who need help,
· protect the rights and freedoms of the individual,
· maintain the rule of law, and
· encourage people to play their part in the community.
Principles
l BEING ACCOUNTABLE
l LIVINGWITHIN OUR MEANS
l MANAGING FOR PERFORMANCE
l DEVELOPING OUR CULTURE OF SERVICE
AIMS
It is as true for the Government as for any other organization that we depend on our staff
at all levels to achieve our aims. It is therefore important that we set these out so that
staff have a clear sense of direction for their work, and know how their performance will
be judged.
The Government's aim of Serving the Community is a simple concept, readily
understood by civil servants. In support of this, departmental missions help staff focus
their efforts on performing to their best in their particular area of work.
Human Resource Management is a planned approach to managing people ef ectively
for performance. It aims to establish a more open, flexible and caring management style
so that staf will be motivated, developed and managed in a way that they can and will
give of their best to support departments' missions.PRINCIPLES
The Government establishes four main principles which guide us in our work. We have
adopted the following additional principles to guide departments in their Human
Resource Management work:
· the Government should be a good employer;
· people are our most important asset;
· staff are recruited and their careers managed on the basis of merit;
· staff should take their share of responsibility for developing their potential;
· staff management is the responsibility of all managers; and
· departmental Human Resource Management plans must be guided by departmental
plans and objectives.VALUES
Values
BEING ACCOUNTABLE
· Openness - to communicate, consult and provide information
LIVINGWITHIN OUR MEANS
· Partnership - to complement the private sector
· Foresight - to plan ahead within available resources
MANAGING FOR PERFORMANCE
· Leadership - to set the direction
· Expertise - to develop necessary skills and apply them in a professional manner
· Effectiveness - to achieve objectives
· Efficiency - to achieve value for money
· Propriety - to ensure proper use of public money
DEVELOPING OUR CULTURE OF SERVICE
· Commitment - to give our best
· Integrity - to be impartial and ethical
· Courtesy - to treat others decently
· Responsiveness - to react to problems and changing circumstances
VALUES
HRM · Trust
· Care
· Teamwork
· Encouragement
· Development
SERVING THE COMMUNITY · Openness
· Commitment
· Effectiveness
· Foresight
· Courtesy
· Propriety
· Expertise
· Partnership
· Integrity
· Efficiency
· Leadership
· Responsiveness
Values shape the culture of any organization. They are the key to "the way things are
done around here", and let all of us know what is expected of us. The values of the
service as a whole should be built upon by departments to develop the particular culture
a department is seeking. Well defined values give staff an instinctive feel for decisions
expected from them and, therefore, reduce the amount of time spent consulting others
before making a decision.The important thing is for each department to develop its own values in the way which
best supports its particular mission, objectives and desired culture, andmotivates staff to
give of their best. Human ResourceManagement helps them to do so in a structure way,
by linking functions such as performance management and training to departmental
aims and values.
Human Resource Management brings out the important values of trust, care, teamwork,
encouragement and development which help the Government meet the principle of
being a good employer and thereby motivating staff to give their best.WHERE RESPONSIBILITIES LIE
The responsibilities for Human Resource Management rest with the Civil Service
Branch, policy branches, departments, managers and individual civil servants.
· Civil Service Branch determines and communicates overall Human Resource
Management policies and advises departments on the implementation of these
policies.
· Policy branches and departments are responsible for implementing central Human
Resource Management policy and developing the HRM plans to meet their own
needs.
· Managers and individual civil servants have personal responsibility for putting
policy into practice.
CIVIL SERVICE BRANCH
The Civil Service Branch sets the strategic direction according to which civil servants
are managed, and performs a number of central functions. To do so it:
Strategic Role :
o develops and promotes policies, standards and good practices in the management of
civil servants; and
o implements these policies through discussions, explanations, guidelines, regulations
and circulars.
Central Functions :
o determines and communicates overall Human Resource Management policy and
standards of best practice;
o advises departments on the implementation of policies and the development of their
Human Resource Management plans;
o formulates pay and conditions of service, fringe benefits and allowances and also
deals with proposals for changes to structures of grades/ranks and for creation of
directorate posts in the light of advice from independent standing bodies;
o deals with appointment, promotion (including succession planning) and discipline
relating to senior positions, taking into account the advice from the Public Service
Commission. It also processes cases relating to staff complaints, early retirement,
legal assistance for civil servants, and benefits for retired civil servants;
o ensures service-wide comparability between grades and ranks with similar
responsibilities;
o consults with major staff associations; ando manages the Administrative and General Grades.
POLICY BRANCHES AND DEPARTMENTS
Policy Branches oversee the effectiveness of all management tasks in departments,
including Human Resource Management. To do so they:
o agree Human Resource Management plans with departments as part of their annual
departmental plans;
o monitor progress on Human Resource Management plans in their departmental
progress reviews;
o review proposals for directorate post creation; and
o with Civil Service Branch, undertake manpower and succession planning,
appointment, promotion and appraisal of senior directorate officers.
Departments are responsible for implementing policies and procedures, and providing
opportunities to motivate, develop, and manage staff in a way which maximizes their
contribution to departmental objectives. To do so they:
o ensure that their mission and values are understood by staff;
o determine the optimum staffing structure and establishment, and negotiate as
necessary with such bodies as Civil Service Branch, Finance Branch, and the
concerned Policy Branch;
o prepare an annual Human ResourceManagement Plan covering the priority issues to
be tackled in the five main areas of manpower planning, recruitment, performance
management, training and development and staff relations; and
o administer rules and regulations on managing human resources.
MANAGERS AND INDIVIDUAL CIVIL SERVANTS
Managers in departments are the implementers of Human Resource Management
policy, and as such, vital to successful management practices - they hold the key to
performance management. To do so they should :
o identify individual objectives for staff to work towards, based on those of the
department;
o provide staff with on-going guidance and supervision, including regular
performance feedback;
o conduct appraisals;
o counsel and initiate appropriate action where necessary to address poor performance
or misconduct;
o identify training and development needs for staff and match these where possible to
the opportunities available;
o communicate regularly with staff on subjects that affect them; and
o take an interest in the welfare of staff.Individual civil servants should be committed to the Government's aim to Serve the
Community. They should also:
o be committed to the mission, objectives and values of their departments;
o understand the duties and responsibilities of their job and to do their best to fulfil
what is expected of them;
o work with their manager to identify their own training and development needs and
where possible to take steps to meet these; and
o abide by Civil Service rules and regulations.DEPARTMENTAL HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
PLANS
CSB
• Strategic Directions
•Central Functions
Human Resource Management Plan
• Succession
Planning
• Turnover
Manpower
Planning
Recruitment
• Appointment
• Selection
Procedures
• Probation
Performance
Management
• Motivation
• Performance
Appraisal
• Promotion
• Guidance
and
Supervision
• Addressing
Poor
Performance
Training and
Development
• Training
• Development
Staff
Relations
• Securing Staff
Commitment
• Resolving
Disputes
• Addressing
Grievances
• Welfare
Management Information System
Departmental Plan
• Mission
• Programme Plans
• Performance Measures
• Financial Summary
• Efficiency Plan
• Human Resource
Managemnt Plan
Departmental human resource management plans are used to link together the overall
policies of the Civil Service Branch, the mission, objectives and values of the
department, and any specific Human Resource Management activities being undertaken
at line management level. The plans thereby provide clear policies and guidelines for
staff and managers.
Plans should provide answers to three fundamental questions:
· What staff will be need, and how are we going to acquire and retain the number and
quality of people required to meet the forecast needs of the department?
· How are we going to ensure that we have a well motivated workforce?
· What actions will be needed to train, develop and fit people for greater responsibility
and responsiveness to change and the resulting demands for different skills and
abilities?In answering these questions, the Human Resource Management plan must refer to and
support departmental plans. This ensures the relevance and credibility of Human
Resource Management. Thus the Human Resource Management plan should relate to
the department's organization structure, mission, values and programme objectives for
the planning period.
Before a Human Resource Management plan is drawn up, it should be considered how
Human Resource Management will be organized and managed in the department. Due
to the importance of the subject, an officer at the directorate level should normally be
assigned the responsibility for Human Resource Management in the department. An
officer at this level should have the broad understanding of the department's mission,
values and objectives. It needs to be considered what the relationship should be between
managers and administration staff, and/or officers charged with specific human resource
management responsibilities, e.g. training officers.
Once these aspects of the planning process have been established, then the key areas of
Human Resource Management can be addressed and initiatives mapped out.
Key components
The plan needs only be as detailed as the department determines is appropriate, and
may not necessarily show specific activities in all areas of Human Resource
Management. However, the component areas are:
o MANPOWER PLANNING
o RECRUITMENT
o PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
o TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
o STAFF RELATIONS
o MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
MANPOWER PLANNING
Introduction
Manpower planning enables a department to project its short to long term needs on the
basis of its departmental plans so that it can adjust its manpower requirements to meet
changing priorities. The more changing the environment the department is in, the more
the department needs manpower planning to show:
o the number of recruits required in a specified timeframe and the availability of talent
o early indications of potential recruitment or retention difficulties
o surpluses or deficiencies in certain ranks or grades
o availability of suitable qualified and experienced successorsKey components
Manpower planning comprises two key components:
o succession planning
o turnover
Succession Planning
Succession planning assesses the likely turnover in key posts, identifies suitable
candidates to fill these posts in future, and ensures that they have the right training and
exposure for their future work. Given the effort and support required for undertaking
succession planning, it is normally confined to the directorate and those ranks
immediately below, plus any grades with high turnover or anticipated expansion.
Succession planning is a very important exercise because it minimizes the impact of
turnover in these key ranks and gives a branch or department early warning of any skill
shortages or likely difficulties in finding suitable candidates. Ideally a succession plan
should cover 3 to 5 years. The succession plan should identify
o key posts and possible successors
o causes of turnover
o competencies of successors and the training required for them
o posts for which no apparent successor exists and the remedial action planned
The information derived from the succession plan should feed into the training and
development of the individuals concerned by ensuring that they attend the necessary
training and are posted to jobs that will provide them with the experience for their
intended role.
Turnover
Turnover refers to retirement, resignation and redundancy. While a department cannot
plan turnover because there are factors, such as resignation, which are beyond its
control, it can monitor turnover carefully to ensure the department will have minimal
difficulties in retaining staff. If such difficulties are envisaged or experienced, the
department will find out the causes for them and take early steps to address them by
improving, for example, motivation or training and development opportunities.
When addressing the aspects of succession and turnover, the department also needs to
consider other manpower planning factors:
· external factors
· internal factorsExternal Factors:
A number of factors may affect whether talent is available in the market to fill posts in a
department. These include the availability of the required personnel with the necessary
qualifications, skills and experience at a specified time, the relative job opportunities in
the private sector and the general outlook of the economy.
Internal Factors:
Departmental Plan: A department assesses the number of staff it requires at different
levels, at specified timeframes, in the light of its present and planned future work
commitments. This may lead to an increase or decrease of the current manpower.
RECRUITMENT
Introduction
Before a department takes steps to employ staff, it should work out the type of staff it
needs in terms of grade and rank, and the time scale in which the staff are required.
The general principles underpinning recruitment within the civil service are that
recruitment should:
o use procedures which are clearly understood by candidates and which are open to
public scrutiny;
o be fair, giving candidates who meet the stipulated minimum requirements equal
opportunity for selection; and
o select candidates on the basis of merit and ability.
Recruitment of overseas officers is undertaken only when no or insufficient local
candidates are available.
Key components
There are three key components to the recruitment process:
o deciding on terms of appointment
o selection of candidates
o probation
Deciding on Terms of Appointment
Terms of Appointment : Having decided on the grade and rank of the staff required,
and the timing concerned, the department should consider what the most appropriate
terms of appointment would be. This should take into account the nature of the duties tobe performed and the overall manpower deployment of the department. The different
terms of appointment that can be offered are -
· permanent and personable terms;
· agreement terms;
· temporary terms (month-to-month or day-to-day);
· part-time;
· non-civil service appointment; and
· consultancy
Guides to Appointment : Entry requirements of staff in each rank and grade are agreed
between the Head of Grade/Department concerned and the Civil Service Branch, taking
into account the advice of the Standing Commission on Civil Service Salaries and
Conditions of Service or other relevant advisory bodies. These requirements are
periodically reviewed and laid down in Guides to Appointments.
Selection of Candidates
Advertising : Vacancies in the civil service are normally advertised in newspapers and
through circulars.
Screening and Selection : Departments screen applications to see if the applicantsmeet
the specified qualifications and other requirements of the post. Suitable candidates are
then shortlisted for subsequent examination and/or interviews. Not all
grades/departments would require candidates to undergo examination, but candidates
would normally be required to be interviewed by a recruitment board or an officer from
the recruitment team.
Roles and Responsibilities : The Civil Service Branch recruits staff of some General
Grades while Heads of Grades/Departments recruit staff of their own grade/department.
For recruitment to middle and senior ranks, the advice of the Public Service
Commission has to be sought before appointment is offered.
Flexibility : To minimize recruitment difficulties as well as attract and retain the best
people, there are flexibilities which include recruitment overseas, offer of agreement
terms, lowering entry qualifications and granting incremental credit for experience.
Probation
During probation staff are introduced to the mission, objectives and values of the civil
service and their departments. Probation is a serious process which provides regular
feedback on performance and assesses suitability for employment in the civil service. It
includes:· on-the-job training : staff should be exposed to the different duties required for their
rank. In this way they can learn the skills expected of them and managers can verify
their long-term suitability;
· supervision and guidance : staff should receive close and sympathetic supervision
and guidance to enable problems and difficulties to be identified early and timely
counseling or other action to be taken.
Newly joined staff must be told the length of their probationary period, which varies
with the requirements of each grade. If there are indications that staff are not suitable
for confirmation, they must be counseled and then warned in writing if the problem
persists. Confirmation is the step whereby a member of staff on probation is found
suitable for the job and employed on permanent and personable terms.
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
Introduction
Performance management is a very important Human Resource Management function.
Its objective is to improve overall productivity and effectiveness by maximizing
individual performance and potential. Performance management is concerned with –
o improving individual and collective performance;
o communicating management's expectations to supervisors and staff;
o improving communication between senior management, supervisors and staff;
o assisting staff to enhance their career prospects through recognizing and rewarding
effective performance;
o identifying and resolving cases of underperformance; and
o providing important links to other Human Resource Management functions, such as
training.
Key Components
Performance management therefore consists of several key components -
o motivation
o performance appraisal
o promotion
o guidance and supervision
o addressing poor performance
MotivationMotivation is in many ways the key to the success of Human Resource Management
development. Managers should aim to increase performance through self-motivation,
rather than having to use external motivation (i.e. the imposition of rules and continual
improvements to conditions of service) to bring about higher standards of performance.
The civil service has many formal programmes to enhance motivation, and these are
discussed in the "staff relations" section of this booklet. However, even more important
is the motivational impact that supervisors have on their staff.
Principle : The basic principle underpinning motivation is that if staff are managed
effectively, they will seek to give of their best voluntarily without the need for control
through rules and sanctions - they will eventually be self-managing.
Procedures : Some of the most effective ways for managers to motivate staff include
giving praise; recognition; and positive feedback; passing on feedback frommore senior
managers; and letting other staff know which staff have been responsible for
praiseworthy work and/or effort. Too often staff experience 'management by mistake',
where most of the feedback received is corrective or punitive for mistakes they are
perceived to have made.
If staff feel that their decisions are generally supported, and when genuine mistakes are
made they will be guided in the right direction, they will be more positive, confident and
prepared to take on responsibility and decision-making.
When staff are shown clear expectations, valued, trusted, encouraged and motivated,
then they will be more likely to give of their best.
Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal assesses an individual's performance against previously agreed
work objectives. It serves two functions. First, it enables management to evaluate an
individual's performance in the current job to identify strengths and overcome
weaknesses. Second, it provides information to assist management plan postings,
transfers and promotions. In so doing, management is able to compare performance and
potential between officers of the same rank.
Principles : The basic principles governing performance appraisal are -
· Heads of Department/Heads of Grade have the flexibility to design their own
appraisal system within the framework of these principles;
· performance appraisal should be regarded as a multi-purpose management tool.
Outcomes from staff appraisal should guide other Human Resource Management
functions;
· it is a joint responsibility of the individual and the supervisor;
· it is a continuous and ongoing process;
· it should relate individual performance to departmental objectives;· checks and balances should be built into the systemto ensure fairness and objectivity;
and
· outstanding performance at one rank does not necessarily indicate suitability for
promotion to a higher rank.
Procedure : Except for officers on probation, performance appraisal is normally carried
out once a year. Different grades/departments may have their own performance
appraisal form which enshrines the principles set out in the preceding paragraph.
At the beginning of the reporting cycle, the appraisee should agree with the appraising
officer on the main objectives or responsibilities over the reporting period. The list of
objectives or responsibilities should be reviewed between the appraisee and the
appraising officer during the reporting cycle to see if changes are necessary. At the end
of the reporting cycle, the appraising officer will write his assessment. He will pass his
assessment to the countersigning officer for the latter's views.
To provide feedback to the appraisee, the appraising officer and the countersigning
officer decide between themwho should interview the appraisee to discuss with him/her
the performance during the reporting period. The interviewing officer should show the
entire report to the appraisee before the interview. A summary of the discussion at the
interview and the points made by the appraisee should be recorded in the appraisal form.
After the interview, the appraisal form is passed to the grade manager for his
assessment.
Promotion
Promotion denotes that an individual has the competencies, i.e. the skills, abilities,
knowledge and attitudes, required to perform effectively at the next higher rank. The
competencies reflect the knowledge and skills exhibited in observable behaviour in the
relevant areas of work. Promotion provides motivation to perform well and is an
important part of performance management.
Principles : The principle of merit, or the best person for the job is key to promotion.
Ability, potential and experience are taken into account in the assessment. The process
of assessment should be fair and transparent. It is kept separate from the day to day
management of performance and from the annual performance appraisal. The former
should be a continuous process, while the latter can be used to assist in determining
suitability for promotion.
Promotion Procedures : Heads of Department/Heads of Grade have flexibility to
invite certain officers to apply for promotion, or allow officers to opt out of promotion.
As a general rule promotion boards are convened to -
· increase transparency and impartiality; and· provide an opportunity to consider eligible officers' potential and organizational
succession planning.
Where necessary and appropriate, promotion interviews are held to assist in assessment
to supplement information provided in staff reports. This will apply to situations where
staff reports are insufficient and questionable in terms of fairness or consistency. The
promotion boards should be aware of potential unfairness if some staff are interviewed
and others are not.
It is good management practice to provide promotion feedback to the staff who were
considered but were not selected after a promotion exercise, to enhance communication.
Departments respond to enquiries fromstaff arising frompromotion exercises. They are
encouraged to take a proactive approach in giving promotion feedback to staff after the
relevant exercise has taken place.
Guidance and Supervision
Day-to-day guidance and supervision is necessary to provide direction and feedback to
staff. It reinforces the annual performance appraisal, helps groom officers for
promotion, and assists staff who are not performing well.
Principles : Guidance and supervision reinforces behaviour that contributes to good
performance and discourages behaviour that blocks progress. Feedback should be -
· frequent - staff should not have to wait until formal performance review or appraisal
for feedback;
· balanced - it should focus on good and bad performance;
· immediate - immediate feedback has much more impact than feedback given several
weeks or months later;
· specific - staff should be in no doubt what actions feedback covers; and
· constructive - feedback should focus on overcoming difficulties or reinforcing
successful behaviour.
Procedure : Guidance and supervision is offered on a day-to-day basis as needed.
Addressing Poor Performance
Poor performers need to be appropriately handled to ensure they will not persist in their
adverse performance, and will give of their best to the civil service. Management must
take action to tackle such performers, otherwise there may be an adverse effect on the
morale of staff who are performing satisfactorily.
Principle : When staff are not performing at the level appropriate for their rank and
experience, they should be told so, and be helped to overcome the poor performancethrough close supervision and counseling. When it is clear that these are to no avail,
retirement in the public interest would need to be resorted to. The whole procedure
needs to be handled in a sensitive, objective and fair manner.
Procedure : Each instance needs to be handled in the light of circumstances. The
normal sequence of action is as follows –
· counseling - staff should be told the areas where they need to improve and how this
should be achieved; and
· appraisal - if staff do not respond to counseling their poor performance will be
indicated in their annual appraisal.
If no improvement is shown after counseling and appraisal, there is a formal process
of dealing with non-performance involving written warning, stoppage of increment
and retirement in the public interest.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Introduction
The objective of training and development is to enable civil servants to acquire the
knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes necessary to enable them to improve their
performance.
Staff training and development should focus on the department's objectives and goals
and staff's competencies in achieving them. A strategic approach has the following
characteristics :
o commitment to training and developing people;
o regular analysis of operational requirements and staff competencies;
o linking training and development to departmental goals and objectives;
o skilled training personnel;
o regular evaluation;
o a continuous learning culture;
o joint responsibility between managers and staff for identifying and meeting training
needs; and
o a variety of training and development methods for different circumstances and
learning styles.
Key components
Training and Development consists of two main aspects :
o training
o developmentTraining
Departments manage their own training function and have varying levels of
responsibility to do this effectively :
· Management formulates departmental training policies and draws up training and
development plans to support departmental missions, objectives and values.
· Managers identify competencies and training needs, implement training activities and
provide coaching and supervision to ensure staff development occurs.
· Staff take responsibility to make the most of the opportunities provided to maximize
their potential.
Various types of training are provided in the civil service –
· induction : to familiarize new recruits with job requirements and procedures,
departmental objectives and performance standards; and the values and norms of the
department.
· management development : to equip managers with the knowledge and skills
required and to widen their perspective.
· vocational : to provide staff with the professional or technical knowledge and skills
required for work.
· language and communication : to meet operational needs (e.g. Thai, Vietnamese)
and to prepare for the future (Putonghua and written Chinese).
· computer : to provide staff with basic computers skills.
Development
The purpose of career development is to identify and develop the potential within staff,
to build existing skill levels, and to prepare staff to take on greater responsibility during
their career.
Career development has to balance the needs and aspirations of the individual with the
needs of the service - where these conflict, the needs of the service should prevail.
Posting
Postings for staff should take account of the previous experience of the individual and
his future needs and potential. Staff can either be developed to have a broad experience
across a number of areas or they can focus on a particular area and develop in-depth
experience. Determining the most appropriate way to develop staff is a balance betweenthe needs of the organization and the aspirations of the individual. Future posting
aspirations should be discussed with staff on the understanding that in the final analysis
the needs of the civil service are paramount.
Acting Appointment
There are three kinds of acting appointments :
· acting "with a view" - whereby staff are posted to the acting rank to assess their
suitability for substantive promotion
· acting "with a singling out effect" - whereby staff who do not merit immediate
promotion or an acting appointment with a view to substantive promotion but who are
nevertheless assessed to have better potential than other officers to undertake the
more demanding duties in the higher rank, are placed in the higher rank to assess their
suitability for substantive promotion.
· acting for administrative convenience - whereby staff are placed in a higher rank to
cover the absence of the normal post holder, e.g. through sickness, long holiday or
maternity leave. Staff acting for administrative convenience revert to their
substantive rank on the return of the substantive post holder.
Apart from acting for administrative convenience which is more ad hoc, the other two
types of acting provide opportunities for staff to be exposed to more onerous duties and
responsibilities, thereby testing their ability.
Secondment
Secondment from departments for attachments in policy branches in the Government
Secretariat are good ways to expose staff to a different working environment which
places greater emphasis on policy formulation and resource control. Apart from
secretariat attachments, secondments and exchange schemes with overseas and private
sector counterparts can be arranged to broaden staff's exposure.
STAFF RELATIONS
Introduction
The purpose of staff relations is to ensure effective communication between
management and staff, to secure maximum cooperation from staff, and to motivate staff
to give their best by ensuring that they feel fairly treated, understand the overall
direction and values of the Civil Service and those of their departments, and how
decisions that affect them have been reached.
The principles that govern staff relations are that, where possible:o management should communicate regularly and openly with staff;
o staff should be consulted on matters that affect them;
o problems and disputes should be resolved through discussion and consultation;
o the Government should uphold the resolutions of the International Labour
Organization conventions; and
o management should devise and encourage activities that contribute to staff's well
being.
Key components
Staf relations cover :
o securing staf commitment
o dispute resolution
o addressing grievances
o welfare
Securing staff commitment
The public judges service by personal experience. This is largely determined by the
staff who handle individual cases - often front-line staff. Staff commitment is thus
crucial to providing the quality of service that the public expects.
Front-line staff have difficult jobs to do and should be fully trained to answer questions,
to know the rules they must administer, and to be taught how to deal with unusual cases
as well as the inevitable difficult customer. In short they need to know how to be
positive, helpful and courteous - everyday.
Managers are responsible for ensuring that programmes are in place for this purpose.
They must also lead by example, so that the principles of good service cascade through
all levels of the department.
Consultation
At the central level, there are four staff consultative councils : the Senior Civil Service
Council, theModel Scale I Staff Consultative Council, the Police Force Council and the
Disciplined Services Consultative Council. It is Government's policy that staff should
be consulted on all significant changes to terms and conditions of service.
At the departmental level, Departmental Consultative Committees provide a
consultative channel between management and staff representatives, mainly on
departmental matters.Managers should listen to their staff, and encourage them to air their views or make
suggestions. In addition to formal channels, this can be achieved through opinion
surveys, suggestion schemes, working groups, and other informal discussions.
Communication
Communication is a two-way process, for releasing staff's ideas, energy and ambitions.
Through communication, management helps staff understand the mission, objectives
and values of the department, and staff can let management know their ideas and
aspirations for giving their best. To achieve effective communication, managers
normally consider the following -
· the message they intend to send
· who they need to communicate with
· the most effective form of communicating this particular message
· how the audience would be likely to receive the message.
Formal communication channels include the consultative machinery, meetings,
briefings, newsletters and circulars. Informal channels include recreational and sports
activities, and day-to-day contact.
Recognition
Recognition of individual or group achievements and efforts will help promote the right
attitude to work, and bring out the best in staff. Apart from pay increase, promotion and
job extension, recognition is a good way to motivate staff. The following formal
schemes help to motivate staff -
· Commendation/Appreciation Letters
· Long Service Travel Awards
· Long and Meritorious Service Award
· Retirement Souvenirs
· Honours and Awards
· Staff Suggestions Scheme
· Staff Motivation Scheme
Informal schemes include competitions, prizes, and articles in newsletters.
Resolving Disputes
Disputes between management and staff should be avoided if possible by prompt and
constructive discussion between the two sides. Disputes are resolved at the
departmental level as far as possible. Where they cannot be resolved by the department,or where they relate to issues of service-wide implications such as pay and conditions of
service, the relevant policy branch and the Civil Service Branch would be involved.
Addressing Grievances
The Government operates an open and fair system to deal with complaints and appeals
from staff. Departments normally designate senior officers to handle staff complaints.
Procedures for staff to lodge complaints are widely published and made known to staff
on their first reporting for duty and are re-circulated at regular intervals.
Complaints should be expeditiously dealt with. In particular, the Government is
committed to providing a working environment which is free from sexual harassment
for its staff. Detailed guidelines on the handling of complaints of this nature have been
promulgated.
Welfare
As a good employer, the Government considers it important to provide welfare and
recreational facilities to staff in maintaining staff morale, enhancing their loyalty and
esprit de corps. The following are schemes/facilities that help to achieve this –
o Staff Welfare Fund
o Staff Relief Fund
o Staff Recreation Room
o Staff Recreation Club
o Holiday Bungalows
There are also rules and guidelines to help staff in distress. In the unfortunate event that
staff encounter misfortune, they can approach their supervisor or departmental secretary
to see what help can be given.
Management Information System
EXAMPLES OF PERFORMANCE MEASURES
MANPOWER PLANNING · turnover by rank/grade & reason
· growth of ranks
· existence of a manpower plan
· existence of a succession plan
· staff leaving during probation
TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT
· training need analysis
· number of training days per staff per year
· existence of a training plan· number of career development interviews conducted
STAFF RELATIONS · days lost through industrial action
· number of staff complaints
· number of suggestions by staff
· number of meetings held
Introduction
An effective management information system enables various levels of information to
be systematically collected about human resource matters so that departments, policy
branches and Civil Service Branch can monitor and predict the effectiveness of Human
Resource Management practices.
Accurate management information enables forward looking Human Resource
Management by providing the means to :
o monitor and improve on-going Human Resource Management performance
o provide up-to-date information on which to base policy development
o verify and demonstrate departmental effectiveness in Human ResourceManagement
o create service-wide checks and balances to safeguard delegation and provide true
accountability for Human Resource Management
Management information falls into two categories, i.e. information collected by Civil
Service Branch for service-wide management, and that gathered by departments for
Human Resource Management at the point of service delivery.
Key components
Therefore the key components in a staf management information system are :
o Civil Service Branch
o Departments
o Human Resource Management performance measures
o Targets and indicators
Civil Service Branch
Civil Service Branch sets high level strategic Human Resource Management objectives
which are reviewed and amended in the light of changing service-wide operational
needs.
Civil Service Branch's objectives are not likely to change greatly from year to year and
will take a medium to long term view of the management of the civil service. The
Branch defines the information needed to review departmental effectiveness in HumanResource Management, and assesses administrative efficiency and consistency (where
required).
The Civil Service Branch determines the minimumrequirements for information needed
to be collated centrally so as to minimize the burden upon departments. Also to this end,
central Government is moving towards service-wide computerization to make the
capture and analysis of data much simpler.
Departments
Human Resource Management information at the departmental level assists effective
monitoring and management of human resources. Identifying and gathering such
information enables departments to gain early warning of potential problems (e.g.
recruitment difficulties) and develop possible solutions before crisis response is
required.
One of the means to obtain information is to conduct staff opinion surveys. These
surveys, which consult and involve, are a fast and effective means of finding out what
the staff think and are well worth doing. Climate surveys, for example, help managers
understand staff's day-to-day experience of work. Attitude surveys help us audit the
extent to which the department's values have been accepted. Some of the data will be
useful to Civil Service Branch to assist in monitoring Human Resource Management
across the civil service, and ensure accountability for effective and efficient Human
Resource Management.
Monitoring over time enables departments to fine-tune Human Resource Management
plans based on accurate information rather than guesswork and memory.
Human Resource Management Performance Measures
Effective monitoring depends on having the right performance measures in place.
Human Resource Management performance measures should therefore relate to all
aspects of Human Resource Management.
Management information will not always be statistically quantifiable and measurable
data, but it should be as objective as possible and based on observable quantifiable
measures wherever possible.
Targets and Indicators
Departments can set targets for Human Resource Management performance. This
would normally be done in consultation with the policy branch, and likely to be only fora few selected aspects. Departments should also monitor developments in other areas of
interest to them, using such measures as indicators.
Civil Service Branch is consulting departments in preparing a list of Human Resource
Management performance measures which can be used by departments to help them
monitor and improve their own Human Resource Management practices. Some of the
information collected will be required by Civil Service Branch to assist in fulfilling its
responsibility to monitor Human Resource Management across the civil service and
develop appropriate policy which is based on accurate, up-to-date information.THE WAY AHEAD
Human Resource Management is a long established task. However there is a new
emphasis emerging and greater importance being placed on finding ways of managing
staff better, so that they can and will continue to give of their best in these times of
changing community needs and expectations.
The challenge ahead in Human Resource Management is not to effect cultural change
overnight, but rather to take initiatives which will lead to continuous improvement and
show a more planned approach to managing people. It is our collective responsibility to
motivate, develop and manage staff in such a way that their contributions to the service
are maximized.
Civil Service Branch sets the strategic direction and formulates the overall Human
Resource Management development policy to encourage and support departments to
achieve continuous improvement in their areas. It has reviewed Human Resource
Management policies and practices and identified four main priorities:
· emphasis on more open, flexible and caring management of people, rather than the
administration of rules
· delegation of authority and accountability for Human ResourceManagement to those
responsible for service delivery
· simplification of rules and procedures to encourage efficiency and effectiveness
· increasing Civil Service Branch's strategic Human Resource Management role in
policy formulation, setting guidelines and rules, and advising departments on Human
Resource Management implementation.
To address these priorities, Civil Service Branch is encouraging departments to review
their Human Resource Management policies and practices, and to plan how Human
Resource Management initiatives can help address the operational needs of the
department.
Policy Branches will need to give more emphasis to their role, to agree and monitor
departmental Human Resource Management plans with their departments.
Departments have the challenge to take stock of the existing culture and Human
Resource Management practices with a view to finding better ways to enable and
encourage the self-motivation, development and management of staff. Departments
should form their own Human Resource Management plans to bring about more
effective and efficient performance to meet their objectives.
Individual Civil Servants should be committed to the Government's aim to serve the
community, continue to give of their very best, and take every opportunity to keep
building the new culture. They should understand the changing values and expectations,and work with management to identify opportunities for personal and departmental
performance improvement, and culture change.
The way ahead, therefore, is to build on current strengths and successes in the most
relevant areas of Human Resource Management, and plan a realistic approach to
continuous improvement over time.
[H16/E-HRMGuide-web.doc]

12 tips for creating better presentations


You have a presentation to create. It's important. But, formatting diagrams can take forever and the text on your slides seems to have a mind of its own. Then, there's the sad fact that everybody's Microsoft PowerPoint presentations look the same.
Sound about right? If so, I've got good news for you! Creating professional, unique presentations can be much easier than you think.
This article will help you find the right tools to get exactly the presentation you want. We'll look at three components of creating effective presentations, and provide time-saving tips to help send your presentation off in style:
  • Grab the viewer's attention
  • Clearly communicate your information
  • Stay in control of your presentations
Looking for tips for an earlier version of PowerPoint? Get tips for creating better presentations with Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003.

Grab the viewer's attention

Creating slides that get the viewer's attention is not about how much you can fit on the screen. It's about using the space on your slides effectively. Don't crowd your slides, and only include elements that contribute to the points you want to make. When you use graphics on a slide, choose images that serve a purpose (such as a chart or diagram that displays a direct benefit of your idea). Compare the two slides below, for example.
Image of two slides showing graphic used to replace text
Two versions of the same content: The slide on the right uses a simple graphic to replace some of the slide text and makes a much stronger point.
Check out these four ways to help grab and keep your viewer's attention.

1. Select or create your own theme.

Themes are the evolution of design templates in PowerPoint, but they're also much more than that. The themes features was introduced in Microsoft Office 2007 to help you easily create the right look for your presentations and to coordinate all of your Microsoft Office documents almost instantly.
A theme is a coordinated set of fonts, colors, and graphic effects that you can apply to your entire document with just a click. The same themes are available for your Microsoft PowerPoint presentations, Microsoft Word documents, Microsoft Excel workbooks, and even your Microsoft Outlook email messages (and in Office 2010, your Microsoft Access database forms and reports), so it's easy to create your own personal or business branding throughout all of your documents.
In PowerPoint, the theme also includes the slide master and slide layouts, which you will learn more about later in this article, and slide background options.
Image of slides with the same content shown in five different themes
Five versions of the same slide: It took just one click to apply a theme that changed the fonts, colors, graphic effects, and slide design for each option shown here. Shown clockwise from top are the Office (default), Adjacency, Couture, Newsprint, and Slipstream themes.
When you apply a theme in your presentation, you automatically get slide layouts, color, fonts, and graphic effects that go together, and you can format content with just a few clicks, as you'll see later in this article.
  • Find many built-in themes in the Themes gallery on the Design tab, in theThemes group. Just point to options to preview that theme in your documents. In Office 2010, you also see a selection of themes in this gallery that are automatically updated periodically from Office.com.
  • You can also mix and match a slide design with different theme colors, fonts, and effects to quickly create your own look. Select separate theme color, theme font, and theme effect sets from their respective galleries on the Design tab:
    Image of the PowerPoint Design tab
    You can even easily create a completely custom theme with your own colors, fonts and slide designs.
Tip: If you change the theme in your presentation and the formatting doesn't change, you may not have used theme-ready formatting when you created your presentation. When you start with a new PowerPoint 2010 or PowerPoint 2007 presentation, theme-ready formatting is automatic for fonts and colors on slide layouts and for Microsoft Office graphics, such as SmartArt graphics, charts, and shapes.
Learn how to customize and save a theme. Note that the link provided is for Office 2010 but also applies to Office 2007.

2. Use video and audio to convey your message more effectively.

Dynamic content, such as a brief video that illustrates an important point, is a great way to engage your audience. Using audio that helps convey your message can also help you keep your slides clean and approachable, such as by adding recorded narration to slides when sending your presentation to others to view on their own.
In PowerPoint 2010, video you insert from your files is now embedded by default, so you don't have to include multiple files when sharing your presentation electronically. You can also customize your embedded videos with easy-to-use tools such as video trim, fades, and effects. And with PowerPoint 2010, you can insert a video that you've uploaded to a website to play directly in your presentation.

3. Use graphics to emphasize key points

A well-chosen chart or diagram can often convey much more to your audience than boring bulleted text. Fortunately, creating charts and graphics has never been easier. In Office 2010 and Office 2007, Office graphics coordinate automatically with the active theme in your presentation.
  • If Excel is installed on your computer, you automatically get the power of Excel charts when you create a chart in PowerPoint. Just click the chart icon on any content placeholder in the PowerPoint presentation to create a chart.
    Image of Excel chart icon
    When your chart is created, an Excel worksheet opens where you can add and edit your data. And when you select the chart in your document, you see the Chart Tools DesignLayout, and Format tabs that make it easy to format and edit your chart. Find chart styles on the Design tab that automatically coordinate with your active document theme. Learn more about working with charts:
    SmartArt graphics, introduced in Office 2007, enable you to create a professional-quality diagram literally as easily as typing a bulleted list. You just type in the SmartArt text pane and the diagram is automatically built for you. SmartArt layouts are available for many types of diagrams, ranging from simple lists to process diagrams, organization charts, timelines, and much more.
    Click the SmartArt icon on any content placeholder to add a SmartArt graphic.
    Image of SmartArt icon
    Image of SmartArt graphic with text pane
    When you type in the text pane, SmartArt adds your text to the graphic. Press enter to add a new shape or content at the same level, and then press Tab to create a sub-shape or sub-content, such as shown here.
    When you select a SmartArt diagram, the SmartArt tools tabs become available on the Ribbon. On the SmartArt Tools Design tab, you can use galleries to select a SmartArt style that coordinates with the effects of your theme and choose from several color options that also coordinate with your theme. You can even select a different SmartArt layout to apply to your active diagram. The layout is updated, but your content and formatting remain. And you can just point to options in any of those galleries to see a preview of your selection on your active graphic before you apply it.
    Tips:
    • Convert a bulleted list to a SmartArt graphic with just a few clicks. To do this, right-click in the list, point to Convert to SmartArt, and then point to a layout to see a preview of the diagram on your active slide, or click to apply the layout of your choice.
    • In Office 2010, dozens of additional SmartArt graphics are available, including more organization chart and picture layouts, as well as improved tools for working with picture diagrams.

4. Use animations and transitions wisely.

Having text and graphics appear on-screen just when you need them can be a nice touch. However, using too much animation can distract from your presentation's content.
  • For effects that emphasize your points without overwhelming your audience, limit animation to key points, and use consistent animation choices throughout the presentation.
    Customize, preview, and apply animations directly from the Animations tab in PowerPoint 2010. In PowerPoint 2007, find the Custom Animation pane on theAnimations tab.
    Tip: Animation effects in PowerPoint 2010 are improved to provide more realistic movement. You can also trigger the animation of an object to begin when you reach a specific point in the playback of audio or video content on your slide.
  • Consistent or complementary choices in slide transitions can also provide a professional touch without being distracting.
    Customize, preview, and apply transitions from the Transitions tab in PowerPoint 2010 or the Animations tab in PowerPoint 2007.
Image of slides showing PowerPoint 2010 transitions
PowerPoint 2010 adds several new 3-D slide transitions with stunning visual effects, such as the gallery transition shown here.
Learn about working with animations and transitions:

Clearly communicate your information

Want slides that clearly communicate your most important points? You might be surprised at how little work it takes to go from basic to brilliant. PowerPoint provides a host of tools for keeping your slides consistent, precise, and professional.
Take a look at two versions of a basic bulleted text slide below. The text in both slides is identical. Which would you prefer to present?
Image of two slides with same content and one formatted
Two versions of the same content: The version on the right uses the slide master and layout formatting in the presentation theme for a more organized, readable slide.

5. Start by outlining your presentation.

Take time to outline your presentation before you begin to create your slides. Doing so can save time and help you give a more clear and effective presentation.
You can create your outline by typing a slide title and bullets points for your main topics on each slide. But you can also use the Outline pane to type your entire presentation outline in one window and add slides to your presentation as you go. To do this:
  1. In the Slides pane that appears on the left of your PowerPoint screen in Normal view, click the Outline tab. (If you don't see the Slides pane, on the View tab, click Normal.)
  2. Notice that a slide number and icon appears for your first slide. Type a title for the slide and then press ENTER to create your next slide.
  3. Press TAB to demote the text level and add points to the current slide in your outline. Or press SHIFT+TAB to promote the text level and add an additional slide.
Image of PowerPoint 2010 showing slide beside the Outline pane
The Outline pane is available in both PowerPoint 2010 (shown here) and PowerPoint 2007.
Tip: PowerPoint 2010 adds a new feature called slide sections that enables you to divide your presentations into logical sections for easier organization, such as to assign a set of slides to one author or to easily print just one section of slides. Learn about working with slide sections.

6. Use masters and layouts to save time and get better results.

The slide master is one of the most important tools in PowerPoint for creating easy-to-use, great-looking presentations. The master gives you a central place to add content and formatting that you want to appear on all (or most) of your slides. Formatting and layout that you do on the slide master automatically updates throughout the slide layouts in your presentation, saving you a tremendous amount of time and effort, and helping to keep your slides consistent. For example, place your logo on the slide master, and it will appear on all slides in the presentation.
  • A slide master includes a set of slide layouts for different types of content. Nine slide layouts are available by default in the Layout gallery on the Home tab, and they are formatted based on the slide master. You can customize any of these layouts individually and create your own custom slide layouts as well.
    Image of PowerPoint slide layout gallery
    The Layout gallery displays the name of the active theme at the top and provides thumbnails of each available slide layout. When you add custom layouts to your presentation, those appear in this gallery as well.
  • If you just need a single slide that doesn't fit an existing slide layout and won't need to be reused, you can use the Title Only or Blank slide layout and do your own thing right on the slide. But if you will reuse a layout for multiple slides in the same (or another) presentation, create or customize a slide layout to avoid doing the same work multiple times and to keep your slides looking professional and consistent.
To access the slide master, on the View tab, click Slide Master.
Learn to create or customize the slide master:
Tips:
  • To hide graphics that you place on the master for just one slide, on the Designtab, in the Background group, click Hide Background Graphics.
  • Masters are also available for formatting notes pages and handouts. Find these options on the View tab.

7. Consider differences between print and on-screen presentations.

Presentations designed to be viewed on screen don't always work well when you print them. Dark backgrounds that look good on slides, for example, rarely print well. Similarly, footer content that you need in print is likely to be distracting on-screen. Fortunately, PowerPoint makes it easy to switch between print and screen presentation options. Here are two features that can help:
  • When you format your presentation using a theme, slide master, and layouts, as described earlier in this article, you can change from a light background to a dark background in just a click, and text on your slides automatically changes color to be visible on the new background. Find the slide background gallery on theDesign tab, in the Background group.
  • To quickly show or hide footer, page number, and date content on all slides at once, on the Insert tab, click Header & Footer. In the Header and Footer dialog box, you can select the options to display them on screen or clear selections to hide content, and then click Apply to All. (Note that if you remove the footer, page number, or date placeholder on any slide, the slide will not display this content even if you turn it on in this dialog box.)
    Image of Header and Footer dialog box

8. Use notes pages and handouts to help deliver the story.

Use the Notes pane that appears below the slide in Normal view to write notes to yourself for your presentation or to create notes that you can print for your viewers instead of crowding your slides with too much text. You can also format and print handouts that contain up to nine slides per page.
Create and print notes pages:
Create and print handouts:

Stay in control of your presentations

Custom colors, layouts, and graphics can do a lot for your presentation. But a misaligned flowchart, or a presentation that crashes on your client's computer, isn't likely to make the impression you want. For example, take a look at the two timeline graphic images below.
Image of two diagrams with same content but created differently
Two versions of the same content: Nudging and fussing to create the graphic on the left took about an hour, and it's far from perfect. Using available PowerPoint tools, it took just a few minutes to create the flawless diagram on the right.

9. Keep file size manageable.

A common cause of stress when you work in PowerPoint is that the file becomes too large to edit or for the presentation to run smoothly. Fortunately, this problem is easy to avoid by compressing the media in your files and using native PowerPoint features whenever possible (such as tables, charts, SmartArt graphics, and shapes) instead of importing and embedding objects from other programs.
Learn about compressing pictures in your presentations:
Tip: PowerPoint 2010 gives you the ability to compress the embedded video and audio files in your presentation as well. Learn about compressing media.

10. Use the tools available to get it right the first time.

You've already seen in this article that you can use features like slide layouts to quickly create consistent slides. Or use tools such as SmartArt graphics to create a professional-quality graphic in no-time. But when you need to do your own thing—and that thing doesn't belong on a slide layout or fit an available graphic style—PowerPoint still provides tools to save you time and improve your results.

11. Turn off (or manage) AutoCorrect layout options.

PowerPoint provides several automatic formatting options to help your slides conform to the provided layouts. They can be big time-savers, but they can also be frustrating if you're not using them intentionally and they cause formatting (such as the font size in slide titles) to become inconsistent from one slide to the next. If you don't want your text to shrink automatically to fit content, you can easily disable those features in the AutoCorrect Options dialog box.
  1. In PowerPoint 2010, click the File tab to open Backstage view, and then clickOptions. In PowerPoint 2007, click the Microsoft Office button and then clickPowerPoint Options.
  2. On the Proofing tab, click AutoCorrect Options.
  3. On the AutoFormat As You Type tab, clear the AutoFit title text to placeholders and AutoFit body text to placeholders check boxes.

12. Know exactly what your viewers will see.

When you want to be sure that what you send is what viewers see, you can save the presentation in the PowerPoint slide show format, so that the show starts for the recipients as soon as they open the file. But, some variables, such as whether media will play correctly on the recipient's computer, may still affect what viewers see.
PowerPoint 2010 introduces a new feature that makes it easy to share your presentation perfectly with almost anyone, anywhere. You can now create a high-quality video of your presentation, complete with your saved narration and timings, in just a few clicks. PowerPoint creates the video in the background while you keep working. Learn how to create a video of your presentation.
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